ARCHIVED CONTENT: In December 2020, the CZO program was succeeded by the Critical Zone Collaborative Network (CZ Net) ×

A river runs through it: U.S. cities’ waterways show consistent patterns of evolution

Funded by the National Science Foundation, the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) is a long-term and in-depth look at the many factors that affect urban environments in Baltimore. BES research examines environmental features like trees, waterways, and soils, built structures like roads, ports, houses, and industrial facilities, and social factors like the distribution of people, health problems, wealth, and crime. BES scientists works across a range of disciplines and try to understand and describe the complexity of Baltimore's urban ecology.

For more information on the BES, please contact NRS Research Forester Morgan Grove at or

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Incorporating urban infrastructure into biogeochemical assessment of urban tropical streams in Puerto Rico. Potter J.D., McDowell W.H., Helton A.M., Daley M.L. (2013): Biogeochemistry

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